Classification and modern methods of utilization, popular

Published: 9.1.2019
radioactive waste: classification and modern methods of utilization

The filled storages fill up with a special grade of clay, in case of an earthquake it will stick together cracks. The storage is closed reinforced concrete plates, cemented, asphalted and covered with earth. After that radioactive waste does not constitute danger. Part of them breaks up to safe elements only in 100200 years. On confidential cards where storages are designated, it is worth "storing a signature stamp eternally"!

There are different plans of waste disposal, but decisions on use of territories are challenged by public organizations and ecologists. The state scientific laboratories work on a problem of destruction of the most hazardous waste almost since the nuclear physics appeared.

Objects where carry out storage of radioactive waste, are not designated on cards, on roads there are no identification marks, the perimeter is carefully protected. At the same time the system of protection is forbidden to be shown to somebody. Across the territory of Russia several tens of such objects are scattered. Here build storages of radioactive waste. One of such associations processes nuclear fuel. Useful substances separate from active waste. They are utilized, valuable components go for sale again.

These capacities can be taken and sent further for the subsequent processing to make burial of radioactive waste is final.

Barehanded you will not take a container with waste. There is a danger of receiving serious radiation. Respirators and working mittens are put on only once when they are removed, they become radioactive waste too. They are burned, ashes are deactivated. Each worker always carries the individual dosimeter which shows how many radiation it is collected during the shift and a total dose if it exceeds norm, then the person transfer to safe work.

Corridors and air shafts concern to it. Here powerful air conditioning system works. Each 5 minutes air is completely replaced. At the plant on processing of radioactive waste is cleaner, than in kitchen at the good hostess. After each transportation of the car water with special solution. Several people work in gumboots with a hose in hands, but processes automate that they became not such labor-consuming.

The so-called fulfilled radioactive fuel turns out. It is not suitable for production of electricity any more and becomes withdrawal. Substance contains impurity of plutonium, americium, cerium and other by-products of nuclear disintegration is dangerous radioactive "cocktail". The American scientists make experiments with use of special devices for artificial end of a cycle of nuclear disintegration.

On nuclear power plants there is a following: the fuel core with oxide of uranium is in a cylinder from stainless steel. It is placed in the reactor, uranium breaks up, emits thermal energy, it sets the turbine in motion and produces electricity. But after only 5 percent of uranium underwent radioactive decay, all core becomes soiled other elements, and it is necessary to get rid of it.

Here process waste. In the furnace radioactive waste turns into glass. People are forbidden to come into such rooms - it is deadly. All processes are automated. It is possible to enter only in case of accident in special means of protection:

Requirements of the foreign buyer are simple: he takes fuel, uses it, returns back radioactive waste. They are brought to the plant by rail, robots are engaged in loading, and to the person to approach these containers is deadly. Sealed, strong containers establish in special cars. The big car is overturned, by special cars stack containers with fuel, then it is returned on rails and special structures with the warned railway services, bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs sent from nuclear power plant to point of the enterprise.

Such countries as Japan, Sweden, Holland and other some states treat questions of burial of radioactive waste and utilization of household garbage seriously.

Grounds where there is a burial of radioactive waste, are on considerable removal from the cities, settlements and reservoirs. The nuclear power, military programs are problems which concern all international community. They are not only in securing the person against influence of sources of formation of Russian joint stock company, but also carefully to protect them from terrorists. It is possible that grounds where radioactive waste is stored, can become an object for a target at the military conflicts.

Radioactive waste is hidden "under seven locks". Depth of bunkers usually is 78 meters, walls reinforced concrete while the storage is filled, over it establish a metal hangar. For storage of very hazardous waste use containers with high degree of protection. In such container lead, in it only 12 small holes of the size of a weapon cartridge. Less hazardous waste establishes in huge reinforced concrete containers. All this is lowered to mines and closed the hatch.

Sources of radiation are dangerous by the destructive influence on a human body and therefore need of localization of active working off is extremely important. Nuclear power plants almost do not produce "greenhouse" gases, but other complex problem is connected with them. Fill with spent fuel capacities, they remain radioactive on an extent of a long time, and the quantity it constantly grows. Still the first attempts of researches for the purpose of a solution of the problem of radioactive waste were in the fifties made. Offers to send them to space, to store at an ocean floor and other hard-to-reach spots expressed.

Existence on the earth of live organisms (people, birds, animals, plants) in many respects depends on as far as Wednesday in which they live is protected from pollution. Every year the mankind accumulates a huge number of garbage, and it leads to the fact that radioactive waste becomes threat to the whole world if not to destroy them.

For the staff of such specific enterprises it is usual work. A difference in one: if on the control panel red light suddenly lights up, it is necessary to run away immediately: it is impossible neither to see sources of radiation, nor to feel. Control devices are installed in all rooms. When everything is all right - the green lamp burns. Working rooms are divided into 3 classes.

Already there are many countries where pay to a problem of pollution of the environment which sources household, industrial wastes are special attention:

The first household inventions appeared with development of glass production. In the beginning it was made a little, and nobody thought of a problem of formation of waste. The industry, walking in step with scientific achievements, began to develop actively by the beginning of the 19th century. Promptly factories where used the machine equipment grew. Tons of the processed coal which polluted the atmosphere because of formation of caustic smoke were released into the atmosphere. Now industrial giants "feed up" the rivers, the seas and lakes a huge number of toxic emissions, natural sources necessarily become places of their burial.

Working at such enterprises and carrying out perfectly precautionary measures, people are not endangered radiations by radiation.

In Russia Federal Law No. 190 of 11.07.2011 where basic provisions on collecting and treatment of radioactive waste are reflected works. The main evaluation criteria on which there is a classification of radioactive waste:

In case of success it will allow to reduce the number of formation of radioactive waste of nuclear power plants to 90 percent.

Formation of huge dumps where waste of activity decays becomes result of the irresponsible relation, turning into mountains of toxic garbage.

In 2002 there took place demonstrations "green", they protested against import to the country of nuclear waste. The Russian nuclear scientists consider that they are provoked by foreign competitors.

With the advent of the person on Earth there was also waste. But if ancient inhabitants did not know what is bulbs, glass, polyethylene and other modern achievements, then now scientific laboratories where talented scientists are attracted work on a problem of destruction of chemical waste. Still up to the end it is not clear what waits for the world through hundreds, thousands of years if waste collects.

2 times a day wash the territory of the shop with water with ordinary laundry detergent, a floor is covered with plastic compound, corners are rounded off, seams are well stuck, there are no plinths and hard-to-reach spots which cannot be washed up well. After cleaning water becomes radioactive, it flows down in special openings, on pipes gathers in huge capacity underground. Liquid waste carefully filters. Water is purified so that it can be drunk.

At specialized factories process waste of average and low activity. Sources - everything that surrounds people in usual life: the irradiated parts of medical devices, details of the electronic equipment and other devices. They are brought in containers by special cars which deliver radioactive waste ordinary roads accompanied by police. Externally from the standard garbage truck they are distinguished only by coloring. On an entrance - the sanitary inspection room. Here everyone has to change clothes, replace footwear.

From here the operator manages furnaces, on the monitor he sees everything that in them occurs. Rooms where work with containers also belong to the second class. In them there is waste of different activity. There are three basic rules: "stand further", "work quicker", "do not forget about protection"!

Only after that it is possible to get on a workplace where it is forbidden to eat food, to take alcoholic drinks, to smoke, use cosmetics and to be without special clothes.


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